Kentucky Climate Center

Kentucky Climate Center

The Kentucky Climate Center conducts research and provides a wide range of weather and climate services. It serves as the State Climate Office for Kentucky and is a partner with the National Weather Service, the National Centers for Environmental Information, and the Midwestern Regional Climate Center. The Kentucky Mesonet, Kentucky’s statewide research-grade automated weather and climate monitoring infrastructure, was developed and is operated as a program of the center. The Kentucky Climate Center also maintains research and development partnerships and provides customized services in support of public sector and business and industry.

Goals & Objectives

I: Strengthen the Kentucky Climate Center’s reputation at the state, regional, and national levels as a leader in climate services and research
– Strengthen public presence and brand through marketing and outreach
– Pursue opportunities to engage in climate-related initiatives and programs with state, regional, and national partners
– Develop proposals, conduct, and disseminate research
II: Strengthen and expand operational weather and climate monitoring and service activities via the Kentucky Mesonet
– Increase staffing to support core operations
– Upgrade and enhance the instrumentation package deployed at monitoring sites – Strengthen operating procedures and protocols to further enhance quality control and quality assurance
– Develop customized weather forecasting capabilities
– Enhance data and information delivery through website and mobile applications
– Refresh and expand the Kentucky Mesonet sponsorship program to facilitate expansion and diversify risk
III: Build structure and capacity to enhance innovation, research and development, and opportunities for commercialization

– Incentivize student engagement with faculty and staff to advance research, service, and outreach
– Pursue strategic partnerships with private businesses, government agencies and non-governmental organizations
– Develop a model and plan to facilitate business development and job creation leveraging the Kentucky Mesonet

Capabilities & Services

The Kentucky Climate Center consists of the Kentucky State Climate Office (KYSCO), the Kentucky Mesonet (KYM), and the Climate Research Laboratory (CRL). The KYSCO conducts research and provides services relating to climate variability and change and to climate-related natural hazards. In doing so, the KYSCO leverages the assets of its partners, including the Midwestern Regional Climate Center, the National Centers for Environmental Information, and the National Weather Service. The KYM is a research-grade infrastructure for weather and climate monitoring with automated stations located throughout Kentucky. Stations monitor air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed and direction. Soil temperature and soil moisture are monitored at selected locations. Observations are made every five minutes. They are retrieved, quality assured, disseminated, and archived. KYM weather data and climate summaries are made available through a public website and custom delivered to National Weather Service forecast offices that serve Kentucky. The CRL conducts research on a range of topics while focusing on meso-scale modeling highlighting land-atmosphere interactions. Models are also used to develop custom weather forecasts.

Funding

Base funding the Kentucky Climate Center is provided through the Applied Research and Technology Program at WKU. Tiered funding for the Kentucky Mesonet is provided via three sources. Federal support is provided through the National Mesonet Program funded by the National Weather Service. State funding is provided via a line-item in the state budget and is directed through WKU. Local funding is provided through sponsorships tied to individual mesonet stations.

PEOPLE

Board

The KCC does not currently have a board of directors. The Kentucky Mesonet has a board of advisors. Current members are John Gordon (chair) of the National Weather Service, Randy Capps of Leadership Strategies Group, Gary Larimore of the Kentucky Rural Water Association, Eddie Melton of the Kentucky Farm Bureau, Vince Lang of the Kentucky County Judge Executive Association, Darrell Link of the Kentucky Council of Area Development Districts, and Michael Williams of the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet.

Faculty

Stuart Foster, Rezaul Mahmood, and Scott Dobler

Staff

Megan Schargorodski, Andrew Quilligan, Patrick Collins, and Charlies O’Connell, Wendy DeCroix, Eric Rappin, and Williams Rodgers

Students

Tori Schow, Logan Mitchell, Austin Wardell, Dolly Na-Yemeh, Greg Docekal, Pierce Larkin, and Nathan Crowdus

OPPORTUNITIES TO GET INVOLVED

For Students 

The KCC provides diverse opportunities for students from a variety of disciplines, including geography, meteorology, geographic information science, computer science, engineering, marketing, and business. The range of opportunities is expected to expand further as new and creative ways are developed to extract and communicate information from weather and climate data.

For Faculty

The KCC provides a range of opportunities for faculty from different disciplines. Focal areas for engagement include research and service related to climate variability and change and the development of computer algorithms for processing spatial-temporal data to extract information for decision support.

For the Community

The KCC’s greatest presence in communities throughout Kentucky is through the Kentucky Mesonet. Community-based partnerships are vital to the KYM. As the network of monitoring stations expands, site hosts are needed for new stations on either public or private lands. Local sponsorships also play a critical role in the KCC’s ability to operate and expand the network.

The Kentucky Mesonet was developed beginning in 2006 with project funding through the National Weather Service. It became only the second vertically-integrated, research-grade network of its kind in the world. Since it inception, the Kentucky Mesonet has grown to include 66 monitoring stations. It continues to expand, as new stations are scheduled to be added. The Kentucky Climate Center gained certification in 2002 as an American Association of State Climatologists Recognized State Climate Office (ARSCO) in conjunction with the National Climatic Data Center (now the National Centers for Environmental Information) and with support from the Midwestern Regional Climate Center and the National Weather Service. The Kentucky Climate Center houses the state climatologist for Kentucky. Dr. Stuart Foster has served in that capacity since July of 2000. He served as president of the American Association of State Climatologists (AASC) for a two-year term beginning in July of 2012 and led a successful effort to restructure the association, including the hiring of the association’s first executive director and creation of a structure of institutional memberships. Dr. Rezaul Mahmood was selected to serve on the 60-person Federal Advisory Committee for the Third National Climate Assessment that was completed and released in 2014. He provide special expertise in regard to the role of land use/land cover change in climate systems.

Know of a way this research center is making a difference? Let us know on the Submit Info tab.

Publications

*Student

Craft, K*, Mahmood, R., King, S. A., Goodrich, G., and Yan, J. 2017. Droughts of the Twentieth and early Twentieth Centuries: Influences on the production of beef and forage in Kentucky, USA. Science of the Total Environment 577:122-135.

Mahmood, R. and Pielke Sr., R. A. 2017. Land use/cover change and climate. Wiley-AAG  International Encyclopedia of Geography 1-11,   DOI: 10.1002/9781118786352.wbieg0511

MS Thesis Defended

Title: Synoptic atmospheric conditions, land cover, and equivalent temperature variations in Kentucky. Completed by: Dolly Na-Yemeh. Thesis Project Director: Dr. Rezaul Mahmood, May, 2017.

Title: Dispersion of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations. Completed by: Austin Wardall. Thesis Project Director: Dr. Rezaul Mahmood, December, 2016.

Presentations:

*Student

Paper, titled, “Synoptic Conditions, land cover and equivalent temperature variations in Kentucky” was presented at the 102nd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geographers, Boston, MA, April 5-9, 2017 (Dolly Na-Yemeh*, Rezaul Mahmood, Gregory Goodrich, Kevin Cary, and Joshua Durkee).

Paper, titled, “Geoprofiles and data about data” was presented at the 47th Student Research Conference, WKU, Bowling Green, KY, March 25, 2017 (co-authored with Dolly Na-Yemeh*, Kevin Cary, Rezaul Mahmood, Gregory Goodrich, and Joshua Durkee).

Poster, titled, “An analysis of Urban Heat Islands in Kentucky” was presented at the 97th Annual Meeting of the American Meteorological Society,Seattle, WA, January 22-26, 2017 (Logan Mitchell* and Rezaul Mahmood).

“Mesonets and Drought Early Warning,” presented by Stuart A. Foster at the 2017 Regional Mesonet Partners Workshop, Champaign, Illinois, March 23, 2017.

“The Kentucky Mesonet: Entering a New Phase,” presented by Stuart A. Foster at the 2017 Kentucky County Judge Executive Association Winter Conference, Lexington, Kentucky, February 9, 2017.

Mesonet Sustainability and Marketing,” presented by Stuart A. Foster at the 2017 Regional Mesonet Program Workshop, Champaign, Illinois, March 21, 2017.

Other Publications

Mahmood, R., Pielke Sr., R. A., and McAlpine, C. 2016. Climate relevant land use and land cover change policies. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 97:195-202.
Mahmood, R. and Pielke Sr., R. A. 2016. Land use/cover change and climate. Wiley-AAG
International Encyclopedia of Geography (in press) (invited)
Quintanar, A. I., Mahmood, R., Suarez*, A., and Leeper**, R. 2016. Atmospheric sensitivity to
roughness length in a regional atmospheric model over the Ohio-Tennessee river valley.
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics DOI 10.1007/s00703-015-0415-z
Lin, X., Pielke, Sr., R. A., Mahmood, R., Fiebrich, C. A., and Aiken R. 2016. Observational
evidence of temperature trends at two levels in the surface layer. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16: 827–841.
Kusunose, Y. and Mahmood, R. 2016. Imperfect forecasts and decision making in agriculture.
Agricultural Systems (accepted)
Xu, Z., Mahmood, R., Yang, Z-L, Fu, C., Su, H. 2015. Investigating diurnal and seasonal
climatic response to land use and land cover change over monsoon Asia with the Community Earth System Model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 120: 1137-1152. DOI: 10.1002/2014JD022479.
Craft, K**, Mahmood, R., King, S. A., Goodrich, G., and Yan, J. 2015.Twentieth century
droughts and agriculture: Examples from impacts on soybean production in Kentucky, USA. Ambio 44: 557-568. DOI 10.1007/s13280-014-0598-4
Ren, D., Leslie, L. M., Shen, X., Hong, Y., Duan, Q., Mahmood, R., Li, Y., Huang, G., Guo, W.,
Lynch, M. J. 2015. The gravity environment of Zhouqu debris flow of August 2010 and its implication for future recurrence. International Journal of Geosciences 6: 317-325.
Fan, X., Ma, Z., Yang, Q., Han, Y., and Mahmood, R., Zheng, Z. 2015. Land use/land
cover changes and regional climate over the Loess Plateau during 2001-2009 – Part I. Observed evidences. Climatic Change 129: 427-440. DOI 10.1007/s10584-014-1069-4.
Fan, X., Ma, Z., Yang, Q., Yunhuan Han, Y., and Mahmood, R. 2015. Land use/land cover
changes and regional climate over the Loess Plateau during 2001-2009 – Part II. Interrelationship from observations. Climatic Change 129: 441-455. DOI 10.1007/s10584-014-1068-5.
Zhang, T., Lin, X. Pielke Sr. R., Mahmood, R. 2015 Potential land cover influence on
temperature and equivalent temperature in the Central Great Plains. Earth Interactions (revised version submitted)
Winchester, J.**, Mahmood, R., Rodgers, W.***, Hossain, F., Rappin, E., Durkee, J., and
Chronis, T. 2015. A modeling study of land cover change and precipitation over the land between the lakes region of Kentucky and Tennessee, USA. Boundary-Layer Meteorology (in revision)
Rappin, E., Mahmood, R., Nair, U., and Pielke Sr., R. A. 2015. Impacts of irrigation on daily
and seasonal precipitation in the Great Plains. Earth Interactions (in revision) [Climate-LULCC Special Collection]
Mahmood, R., Pielke Sr., R. A. Hubbard, K. G., Niyogi, D., Dirmeyer, P., McAlpine, C.,
Carleton, A., Hale, R., Gameda, S., Beltran-Przekurat, A., Baker, B., McNider, R.,
Legates, D. R., Shepherd, M., Du, J., Blanken, P., Frauenfeld, O. W., Nair, U. S.,
and Fall, S. 2014. Land cover changes and their biogeophysical effects on climate. International Journal of Climatology 34: 929–953. DOI: 10.1002/joc.3736
Suarez, A.*, Mahmood, R., Quintanar, A. I., Beltran-Przekurat, A., and Pielke Sr., R. A.
2014. A comparison of the MM5 and the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System simulations for land-atmosphere interactions under varying soil moisture. Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography 66, 21486, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v66.21486.
Durkee, J., Degu, A. M., Hossain, F., Mahmood, R., Winchester**, J., and Chronis, T. 2014.
Investigating the effect of Land between the Lakes on storm patterns. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 53: 1506-1524.
Loveland, T. R. and Mahmood, R. 2014. A design for a sustained assessment of climate forcing
and feedbacks related to land use land cover change. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95: 1563-1572.
Lin, X., Hubbard, K. G., Mahmood, R., and Sassenrath, G. F. 2014. Assessing satellite-based
start-of-season trends in the U.S High Plains. Environmental Research Letters 9 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/10/104016.
Lovanh, N., Quintanar, A. I., Rysz, M., Loughrin, J., Mahmood, R. 2014. Effect of heat fluxes on
ammonia emission from swine waste lagoon based on neural network analyses. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 7:16-29. DOI: 10.3923/jest.2013.
Johnson, C. M., Xingang, F., Mahmood, R., Groves, C., Polk, J., and Yan, J. 2014. Influence of
karst landscapes on weather systems: A WRF modeling study on responses for different land and soil types. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres (in revision)
Quintanar, A. I., Mahmood, R., Lovanh, N., Rawley, J.*, E. Becerra-Acosta and Loughrin, J.
2013. Estimating greenhouse gas emission from a waste lagoon. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 29: 511-519. (doi: 10.13031/aea.29.10013)
Craft, K**, Mahmood, R., King, S. A., Goodrich, G., and Yan, J. 2013. Drought and corn in
Kentucky. Applied Geography 45: 353-362.
Mahmood, R., Keeling*, T., Foster, S. A., and Hubbard, K. G. 2013. Did irrigation impact 20th
century temperature in the High Plains aquifer region? Applied Geography 38:11-21.
Mahmood, R., Keeling*, T., Foster, S. A., and Hubbard, K. G. 2013. Corrigendum to “Did
irrigation impact 20th century temperature in the High Plains aquifer region?”
Applied Geography 40:51.
Mahmood, R, Littell, A**, Hubbard, K. G., and You, J. 2012. Observed data-based assessment of
relationships among soil moisture at various depths, precipitation, and temperature. Applied
Geography, 34: 255-264.
Quintanar, A. I. and Mahmood, R. 2012. Ensemble forecast spread induced by soil moisture
Changes over mid-south and neighbouring mid-western region of the USA. Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, DOI: 10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.17156
Loughrin, J. H, Quintanar, A. I., Cook, K. L., Lovanh, N. C., Mahmood, R., Becerra-Acosta, E.
2012. Seasonal Variation in heat fluxes, predicted emissions of malodorants, and
wastewater quality of an anaerobic swine waste lagoon. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, DOI 10.1007/s11270-012-1134-4.
Durkee, J., Campbell, L.*, Berry, K.*, Jordan, D.*, Goodrich, G., Mahmood, R., and Foster, S.
2012. A synoptic perspective of the record 1-2 May 2010 Mid-south rain and flood event. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93: 611-620.
Leeper, R.***, Mahmood, R., Quintanar. A. I. 2011. Influence of karst landscape on planetary
boundary layer atmosphere: A Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model-based investigation. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 12: 1512-1529.
Mahmood, R., Leeper, R.**, Quintanar, A. I. 2011. Sensitivity of planetary boundary layer
atmosphere to historical and future changes of land use/land cover, vegetation fraction,
and soil moisture in Western Kentucky, USA. Global and Planetary Change, 78: 36-53 doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.05.007.
Sen Roy, S. , Mahmood, R., Quintanar, A. I., and Gonzalez*, A. 2011. Impacts of irrigation
on dry Season precipitation in India. Theoretical and Applied Climatology,
104: 193-207, DOI: 10.1007/s00704-010-0338-z.
Legates, D. R., Mahmood, R., Levia, D. F., DeLiberty, T. D., Quiring, S., Houser, C.,
Nelson, F. E. 2011. Soil Moisture: A central and unifying theme in physical geography.
Progress in Physical Geography 35:65-86.
Loughrin, J.H., Quintanar, A.I., N. Lovanh, Mahmood, R. 2011. Heat flux measurements and
modeling of malodorous compounds above an anaerobic swine lagoon. Water, Air, and
Soil Pollution, 27: 463-471, DOI: 10.1007/s11270-010-0601-z.
Pielke Sr., R. A., Pitman, A., Niyogi, D., Mahmood, R., McAlpine, C. Hossain, F.,
Klein Goldewijk, K., Nair, U., Betts, R., Fall, S., Reichstein, M., Kabat, P.,
de Noblet-Ducoudré, N. 2011. Land use/land cover changes and climate: Modeling
analysis and observational evidence. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 2: 828-850, doi: 10.1002/wcc.144. (invited)
Quintanar, A. I., Rodgers, W.**, Mahmood, R., Loughrin, J. H., and Lovanh, N. 2011. Energy
flux comparisons in the surface layer of a waste lagoon during warm and cool season
clear skies. Meteorological Applications (accepted)
Mahmood, R., Pielke Sr.,, R. A. Hubbard, K. G., Niyogi, D., Bonan, G., Lawrence, P.,
Baker, B., McNider, R., McAlpine, C., Etter, A., Gameda, S., Qian, B., Carleton, A., Beltran-Przekurat, A., Chase, T., Quintanar, A. I., Adegoke, J. O., Vezhapparambu, S., Conner, G., Asefi, S., Sertel, E., Legates, D. R., Wu, Y., Hale, R., Frauenfeld, O. N., Watts, A., Shepherd, M., Mitra, C., Anantharaj, V. G., Fall, S., Lund, R., Nordfelt, A., Blanken, P., Du, J., Chang, H-I., Leeper**, R., Nair, U. S., Dobler, S., Deo, R., Syktus, J. 2010. Impacts of land use land cover change on climate and future research priorities. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 91: 37-46.
You, J., Hubbard, K. G., Mahmood, R., Sridhar, V., Todey, D. 2010. Quality control of soil
water data in ACIS – A case study in Nebraska. ASCE, Journal of Hydrologic
Engineering 15: 200-209.
Mahmood, R. and Hubbard, K. G. 2009. Agricultural Cool Island (ACI). In Land Use Policy.
Eds. A. C. Denman and Oliver M. Penrod. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
pp. 217-229.
Quintanar, A. I., Mahmood, R., Motley, M. V.*, Yan, J., Loughrin, J., Lovanh, N. 2009.
Simulation of boundary layer trajectory dispersion sensitivity to soil moisture conditions: MM5 and Noah-based investigation. Atmospheric Environment 43: 3774-3785.
Quintanar, A. I., Mahmood, R., Loughrin, J. H., Lovanh, N., Motley*, M. V. 2009. A system for
estimating Bowen Ratio and evaporation from waste lagoons. ASABE, Applied
Engineering in Agriculture 25: 923-932.
Pielke Sr., R. A., Davey, C., Niyogi, D., Fall, S., Steinweg-Woods, J., Hubbard, K. G., Lin, X.,
Cai, M., Lim, Y-K., Li, H., Nielsen-Gammon, J., Gallo, K., Hale, R., Mahmood, R.,
Foster, S., McNider, R. T., Blanken, P. 2009. Reply to comment by David E. Parker, Phil
Jones, Thomas C. Peterson, and John Kennedy on “Unresolved Issues with the
Assessment of Multi-Decadal Global Land Surface Temperature Trends” Journal of
Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 114, D05105, doi:10.1029/2008JD010938.
Leeper, R.**, Mahmood, R, Quintanar, A. I. 2009. Near surface atmospheric response to
simulated changes in land-cover, vegetation fraction, and soil moisture over Western
Kentucky. .Publications in Climatology Vol. 62. No. 2. Pp. 41. (peer-reviewed
monograph)
Foster, S. and Mahmood, R. 2009. Spatial metadata for weather stations and the interpretation
of climate data. In Historical Climate variability and Impacts in the United States.
Eds. Lesley-Ann Dupigny-Giroux and Cary Mock. Springer-Verlag: New York.
pp. 189-206.
Mahmood, R. 2008. The Kentucky Mesonet: Background and future applications. In The Corn
and Climate Report: A Practical Guide to Help Midwestern Farmers Understand and
Respond to a Changing Climate. Eds. Jordan, B., Kluck, D., Mock, D., Schulz, P.,
Takle, G., and Wash, S. Ames, IA: Iowa State University. pp. 18-19. (Online)
Mahmood, R., Hubbard, K. G., Leeper, R.*, and Foster, S. A. 2008. Increase in near surface
atmospheric moisture content due to land use changes: Evidence from the observed
dew point temperature data. Monthly Weather Review, 136:1554-1561.
Mahmood, R., and Foster, S. A. 2008. Meso-scale weather and climate observations in Kentucky
for societal benefit. Focus on Geography, 50: 32-36. (Special issue on Kentucky)
Quintanar, A., Mahmood, R., Loughrin, J., Lovanh, N. C. 2008. A coupled MM5-Noah land
surface model-based assessment of sensitivity of planetary boundary layer variables to
anomalous soil moisture conditions. Physical Geography, 29: 54-78 (DOI: 10.2747/0272-
3646.29.1.54)
Loughrin, J. H., Lovanh, N., and Mahmood, R. 2008. Equilibrium sampling used to monitor
malodors in a swine waste lagoon. Journal of Environmental Quality, doi:10.2134/jeq2006.0534 (37: 1-6)
Loughrin, J. H., Lovanh, N., Quintanar, A., and Mahmood, R. 2008. Equilibrium sampling of
malodorous compounds in air using stir bar sorbtive extraction. Transaction of the
ASABE 51:1747-1752.
Mahmood. R. and Hubbard, K. G. 2007. Relationship between soil moisture of near surface
and multiple depths of the root zone under heterogeneous land uses and varying
hydroclimatic conditions. Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6578 (pp. 3449-
3462)
Roy, S. S., Mahmood, R. Niyogi, D. D. S., Lei, M., Foster, S. A., Hubbard, K., G., Douglas, E.,
Pielke Sr., R. A. 2007. Impacts of the agricultural Green Revolution induced land use
changes on air temperatures in India. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres,
VOL. 112, D21108, doi:10.1029/2007JD008834.
Pielke Sr., R. A., Davey, C., Niyogi, D., Fall, S., Steinweg-Woods, J., Hubbard, K. G., Lin, X.,
Cai, M., Lim, Y-K., Li, H., Nielsen-Gammon, J., Gallo, K., Hale, R., Mahmood, R.,
Foster, S., McNider, R. T., Blanken, P. 2007. Unresolved Issues with the Assessment of
Multi-Decadal Global Land Surface Temperature Trends. Journal of Geophysical
Research- Atmospheres, 112, D24S08, doi:10.1029/2006JD008229.
Mahmood, R., Foster, S. A., Logan*, D. 2006. The GeoProfile Metadata, Exposure of
Instruments, and Measurement Bias in Climatic Record Revisited. International
Journal of Climatology, 26: 1091-1124.
Mahmood R., Foster, S. A., Keeling*, T., Hubbard, K. G., Carlson*, C., and Leeper*, R. 2006.
Impacts of irrigation on 20th century temperature in the Northern Great Plains. Global and
Planetary Change, 54: 1-18. (Special issue on LULCC and its impacts on Climate)
Mahmood, R. and Hubbard, K. G. 2005. Assessing bias in evapotranspiration and soil moisture
estimates due to the use of modeled solar radiation and dew point temperature data.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 130: 71-84.
Mahmood, R., Hubbard, K. G., and Christy Carlson* 2004. Modification of growing season
surface temperature records in the Northern Great Plains due to land use transformation:
verification of modeling results and implication for global climate change. International
Journal of Climatology, 24:311-327.
Mahmood, R. and Hubbard, K. G. 2004. An analysis of simulated long-term soil moisture
data for three land uses under contrasting hydroclimatic conditions in the Northern
Great Plains. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 5:160-179.
Mahmood, R., Legates, D. R., Meo, M. 2004. The role of soil water availability in potential
rainfed rice productivity in Bangladesh: Applications of the CERES-Rice model.
Applied Geography, 24: 139-159.
Mahmood, R. and Hubbard, K. G. 2003. Simulating sensitivity of soil moisture and
evapotranspiration under heterogeneous soils and land uses. Journal of Hydrology,
280:72-90.
Mahmood, R., Meo, M., Legates, D. R., and Morrissey, M. L. 2003. The CERES-Rice
model-based estimates of potential monsoon season rainfed rice productivity in Bangladesh.
The Professional Geographer, 55: 261-275.
Hubbard, K. G., Mahmood, R. and Carlson, C.* 2003. Estimating daily dew point temperature
for the Northern Great Plains using maximum and minimum temperature. Agronomy
Journal, 95:323-328.
Adegoke, O. A., Pielke Sr., R. A., Eastman, J., Mahmood, R., and Hubbard, K. G. 2003. Impact
of irrigation on mid summer surface fluxes and temperature under dry synoptic conditions: A regional atmospheric model study of the U. S. High Plains. Monthly Weather Review,
131: 556-564.
Mahmood, R. and Hubbard, K. G. 2002. Anthropogenic land use change in the North American
Tall Grass-Short grass transition and modification of near surface hydrologic cycle.
Climate Research, 21: 83-90.
Mahmood, R. and Hubbard, K. G. 2002. Effect of time of temperature observation and estimation
of daily solar radiation for the Northern Great Plains, USA. Agronomy Journal,
94: 723-733.
Mahmood, R., Hubbard, K. G., and Carlson, C.* 2002. Land use change and modification of near-
surface thermal records in the Northern Great Plains. Bulletin of the American
Meteorological Society, 83: 504.
Mahmood, R., Hubbard, K. G., and Hou, Q. 2001. Soil moisture monitoring and modeling in
the Great Plains. In, Automated Weather Stations for Applications in Agriculture and
Water Resources Management: Current Use and Future Perspectives, (Ed.) Hubbard,
K. G. and Sivakumar, M. V. K. Lincoln, NE: High Plains Climate

Presentations (since 2010)

Foster, S.A. “Midwest Mesonet Initiative,” Annual Meeting of the American Association of State Climatologists, Santa Fe, NM, June 30, 2016.

Foster, S.A. “Climate Variability and Change,” Nature’s Call to Action II, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet/Federal Highway Administration, Frankfort, KY, April 14, 2016.

Foster, S.A. “Kentucky Climate Outlooks and Monitoring,” UK Winter Wheat Meeting, Hopkinsville, KY, January 5, 2016.

Foster, S.A. “The Kentucky Mesonet:Overview and Strategic Vision,” Kentucky Agriculture Science and Monitoring Committee, Louisville, KY, December 9, 2015.

Foster, S.A. “Building a Business Model to Unlock the Value of a Mesonet,” Midwest Mesonet Workshop, Champaign, IL, September 29, 2015.

Foster, S.A. “The Kentucky Mesonet: From the Ground Up,” Kentucky Association of Conservation Districts Annual Meeting, Bowling Green, KY, July 20, 2015.

Foster, S.A. and Mahmood, R. “The Kentucky Climate Center: An Overview of Assets,” Water Management Working Group, Kentucky Farm Bureau, Louisville, KY, April 29, 2015.

Foster, S.A. “In Search of Sustainability: Building a Solid Foundation,” Panel Discussion on Climate Monitoring Networks and Initiatives, Annual Meeting of the American Association of State Climatologists, Stevenson, WA, July 10, 2014.

Foster, S.A. “Weather and Climate Monitoring in Kentucky: Overview and Opportunity,” Annual Meeting of the Association of American State Geologists, Lexington, KY, June 10, 2014.

Foster, S.A “Perspectives on Climate and the Context of Climate Services,” Annual Meeting of the Association of American State Geologists, Lexington, KY, June 9, 2014.

Foster, S.A. “The Kentucky Mesonet: Infrastructure for Weather and Climate Monitoring,” Kentucky Stormwater Association Quarterly Meeting, Lexington, KY, April 16, 2014.

Foster, S.A. “Perspectives on Weather and Climate in Kentucky,” Nature’s Call to Action II, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet/Federal Highway Administration, Frankfort, KY, April 9, 2014.

Foster, S.A. “Climate Variability, Trends, and Outlooks for Kentucky,” Kentucky Agribusiness Association, Louisville, KY, February 11, 2014.

Foster, S.A. “The Kentucky Mesonet: Up or Down?” Kentucky County Judge/Executive Association Fall Retreat, Kentucky Dam Village, October 17, 2013.

Foster, S.A. “The Kentucky Mesonet: Monitoring Current Weather and Long-term Climate,” Lincoln Trail Area Development District, Elizabethtown, KY, July 17, 2013.

Foster, S.A. “The Kentucky Mesonet: An Environmental Monitoring Infrastructure to Support Public Safety and Economic Development,” Kentucky Chapter of the American Planning Association, Lake Cumberland, KY, May 9, 2013.

Foster, S.A., Gordon, J., and S. Harley, “A Partnership for Public Safety: The Kentucky Mesonet and the National Weather Service,” Kentucky County Judge Executive Association, February 7, 2013.

Foster, S.A. “The Kentucky Mesonet: Taking the Next Step,” KIPDA Regional Planning Council, Louisville, KY, January 8, 2013.

Foster, S.A. “Perspectives on the Drought of 2012: Providing Context and Support for Decision Making,” ABAK & KFGA Summer Meeting, Bowling Green, KY, August 8, 2012.

Foster, S.A. “Communicating about Climate Using Graphics,” Annual Meeting of the American Association of State Climatologists, Destin, Florida, July 12, 2012.

Foster, S.A. “Weather and Climate: From Data to Decision,” Nature’s Call to Action, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet/Federal Highway Administration, Frankfort, Kentucky, March 27, 2012.

Foster, S.A. “An Analysis of Kentucky’s Climate: Recent Trends and Historical Perspectives,” Climate Change and Small Grains Production Workshop, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, February 20, 2012

Foster, S.A. “Perspectives on Weather and Climate in Kentucky,” Kentucky Emergency Response Commission, Frankfort, Kentucky, January 18, 2012.

Foster, S.A. “The Kentucky Mesonet: Linking Weather and Energy,” Tennessee Valley Public Power Association, Operations Coordination Committee Meeting, Nashville, Tennessee, November 16, 2011.

Foster, S.A., Quiton, J., and Mahmood, R. “Dynamic Spatial Modeling and Interpolation of Near-surface Atmospheric Variables Based on the Kentucky Mesonet,” Annual Meeting of the Kentucky Academy of Science, Murray, Kentucky, November 5, 2011.

Foster, S.A. and Mahmood, R. “The Kentucky Mesonet: Value for Municipal Utilities,” Kentucky Municipal Utilities Association Quarterly Meeting, Covington, Kentucky, April 29, 2011.

Foster, S.A. “Natural Hazards in the Barren River Area,” Barren River Hazard Mitigation Meeting, Bowling Green, Kentucky, November 22, 2010.

Foster, S.A. and Mahmood, R. “The Kentucky Mesonet: Monitoring Weather and Climate throughout the Commonwealth,” Wind Energy in Kentucky Webinar, Kentucky Renewable Energy Consortium, University of Louisville, July 23, 2010.

Foster, S.A. “A Snapshot of the Kentucky Mesonet,” 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Association of State Climatologists, South Lake Tahoe, California, July 13-15, 2010.

Foster, S.A. and Mahmood, R. “The Kentucky Mesonet: Monitoring Weather and Climate throughout the Commonwealth,” Center for Renewable Energy Research and Environmental Stewardship Board of Directors Meeting, Kentucky Cabinet for Energy and Environment, Louisville, Kentucky, June
30, 2010.

Foster, S. A. “The Kentucky Mesonet: Monitoring Weather and Climate throughout the Commonwealth,” 2010 Annual KAMM Conference, Cadiz, Kentucky, April 19-22, 2010.

Foster, S. A. “The Kentucky Mesonet: An Overview and Update,” National Weather Service Customer-Partner Workshop, Knott County, Kentucky, March 8, 2010.

Foster, S. A. “Kentucky Weather Hazards: What is Your Risk?” 2010 Kentucky Weather Conference, Bowling Green, Kentucky, January 15-16, 2010.

Grants

PIs Rezaul Mahmood, Janey Camp, Eric Toman, Ramiro Berardo, Mark Cohen, Xingang Fan, Jonathan Gilligan, Gregory Goodrich, George Hornberger, Eric Rappin, and Robyn Wilson. 2016. Midwest Climate, Water Resources, Energy, and Transportation Consortium (MCWET). Submitted to: NOAA. Total budget: 3,496,841. Status: Pending.
PIs Stuart Foster and Rezaul Mahmood. 2016. Kentucky Mesonet Critical Instrumentation Upgrades. Submitted to: Kentucky Agricultural Development Fund. Total budget: $105,250. Status: Funded.
PIs Rezaul Mahmood, Udaysankar Nair, Eric Rappin, Roger Pielke Sr., and Dallas Staley. 2015. Collaborative Research: The Great Plains Irrigation Experiment (GRAINEX) for Understanding the Influence of Irrigation on the Planetary Boundary Layer and Weather Events. Submitted to: NSF. Total Budget: $674,465. Status: Pending.
PIs Eric Rappin, Rezaul Mahmood, and Jeremy Pal. 2015. Collaborative Research: A Multiscale Spatiotemporal Study of the Impacts of Land Cover Change on the West African Monsoon. Submitted to: NSF. Total Budget: $427,112. Status: Pending.
PIs David Crocker III, Phil Silva, Kathleen Purvis-Roberts, Rezaul Mahmood, and Matthew Nay 2015-18. Aerosol formation from agricultural volatile organic compounds. Submitted to: NSF. Total Budget: $765,131. Status: Funded.
PIs Xiaomao Lin, Tao Li, Eric Rappin, and Rezaul Mahmood. 2015. Weather Forecast-Based Real-Time Nitrogen and Phosphorus Optimization System in Philippine Rice. Submitted to:
Global Center for Food Systems Innovation (GCFSI), MSU. Total budget: ~$250,000. Status: Not funded.
PIs Rezaul Mahmood, Udaysankar Nair, Eric Rappin, Roger Pielke Sr., and Dallas Staley. 2014. Collaborative Research: The Great Plains Irrigation Experiment (GRAINEX) for Understanding the Influence of Irrigation on the Planetary Boundary Layer and Weather Events. Submitted to: NSF. Total Budget: $553,787. Status: Not funded.
PIs-Janey Camp, Rezaul Mahmood, Eric Rappin, Amanda Carrico, Peter Newton, Chris Small, Heather Johnson, and Andrew Hostetler. 2015. Hazard SEES Collaborative Research: Social and physical dimension of land use and cyclone vulnerability. Submitted to: NSF. Total Budget: ~$3,000,000. Status: Not funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2014. Meso-scale equivalent temperature. Graduate Student Research Fellowship. Submitted to WKU: Total budget: ~$26,000. Status: Funded.
PIs-Rezaul Mahmood and Scott Dobler, 2014. Drought Monitoring at the Meso-scale. Submitted
to the American Geophysical Union (AGU). Total budget: $27,000. Status: Funded.
PIs- David Sanford (UK), Rezaul Mahmood and Stuart Foster, 2014. Development of a farmer friendly ag-weather website for Kentucky. Submitted to Corn Growers Association of Ky and Small Grain Growers Association of KY. Total Budget: $26,000 WKU portion ($24,000). Status: Funded.
PIs-Rezaul Mahmood and Stuart Foster, 2014. Department of Commerce NOAA Scientific and Technical Support. Submitted to: NOAA. Total Budget: $100,000. Status: Funded.
PI- Rezaul Mahmood. 2014 Emission dispersion modeling from the livestock firms. Submitted to: The United States Department of Agriculture. Total Budget: ~$101,000. Status: Funded.
PIs-Eric Rappin, Rezaul Mahmood, Xingang Fan, Joseph Santanello, 2014. A mesoscale perspective of soil moisture influences on extreme weather patterns in both current and potential future thermodynamic climate scenarios. Submitted to: NSF. Total budget: $487,665. Status: In review.
PIs-Janey Camp, Rezaul Mahmood, Eric Rappin, Amanda Carrico, and Andrew Hostetler, 2014. Coastal SEES Collaborative Research: Land Use Land Cover Changes and Their Impacts on Post-landfall Cyclones in Coastal Bangladesh – Identifying Sustainable Land Management Options. Submitted to: NSF. Total Budget: $1,992,321Status: Not Funded.
PIs-Rezaul Mahmood and Stuart Foster, 2013. Department of Commerce NOAA Scientific and Technical Support. Submitted to: NOAA. Total Budget: $75,000. Status: Funded.
PIs-Rezaul Mahmood and Scott Dobler, 2013. Drought Monitoring at the Meso-scale (summary proposal). Submitted to the American Geophysical Union (AGU). Total budget: $2,000. Status: Funded.
PIs-Xingang Fan and Rezaul Mahmood, 2013. Soil Temperature Variability, Land Memory of Heat, and Associated Regional Climate Predictability. Submitted to: NSF. Total Budget: $475,134. Status: Not Funded.
PIs David Crocker III, Phil Silva, Rezaul Mahmood, Matthew Nay, and Kathleen Purvis-Roberts. 2013. Aerosol formation from agricultural volatile organic compounds. Submitted to: NSF. Total Budget: $472, 903. Status: Not funded.
PI- Rezaul Mahmood. 2013. Emission dispersion modeling from the livestock firms. Submitted to: The United States Department of Agriculture. Total Budget: ~$97,000. Status: Funded.
PI- David Van Sanford, Co-PIs Paul Vincellli, Yoko Kusonose, Carol Hanley, Senthold Asseng, Pam Knox, Brenda Ortiz, Al Sutherland, and Rezaul Mahmood. 2013. Adaptation to Climate variability and change through use of forecast-based crop management: An integrated project. Submitted to: USDA-AFRI. Total Budget: $999, 458. Status: Not funded.
PI-Phil Silva, Co-PIs, Kim Cook, David Cocker, Akua-Asa Awuku, and Rezaul Mahmood. 2013. Emissions and Atmospheric Fate of Ammonia and Amines from Managed Agroecosystems. Submitted to: USDA-NIFA. Total Budget: $340,000. Status: Not funded.
PI- David Van Sanford, Co-PIs Rebecca McCulley, Paul Vincellli, Jerry Skees, Rezaul Mahmood, and Stuart Foster. 2012. Developing and Delivering Useful Climate Information and Decision Support Tools for Kentucky Agriculture: Preparing for Extreme Events. Submitted to: NOAA. Total Budget: $100,0000. Status: Not funded.
PIs-Rezaul Mahmood and Stuart Foster, 2012. Department of Commerce NOAA Scientific and Technical Support. Submitted to: NOAA. Total Budget: $50,000. Status: Funded.
PI- David Van Sanford, Co-PIs Rebecca McCulley, Carol Hanley, Chad Lee, Sue Nokes, Matthew Dixon, Rezaul Mahmood, Stuart Foster, Al Sutherland. 2012. Development of a farmer-friendly agweather website for Kentucky. Total Budget: $38,916. Status: Funded
PIs-Rezaul Mahmood and Tom Loveland. 2012. Linking socio-economic decisions, technological advancement, and biogeophysical impacts of land use land cover change on climate in the Great Plains: A synthesis. Submitted to: USGS. Total Budget: $132,726. Status: Not funded.
PI- Rezaul Mahmood. 2012. Emission dispersion modeling from the livestock firms. Submitted to: The United States Department of Agriculture. Total Budget: $85,852. Status: Funded.
PI-Stuart Foster, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood, 2012. Soil Monitoring with Kentucky Mesonet, Phase II. Submitted to: KY Agricultural Development Fund. Total budget: $19,629. Status: Not funded.
PI-Stuart Foster, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood, 2012. WKU: Expanded weather monitoring for Barren County. Submitted to: Kentucky Agricultural Development Fund. Total budget: $23,950. Status: Funded.
PI-Xingang Fan, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2011. Investigating the Imbalance of Energy and Water Budget and Its Control over Regional Climate from the NASA MERRA Reanalysis. Submitted to NASA. Total Budget: $298,803. Status: Not Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood, Nanh Lovanh, John Loughrin, Phil Silva, George Day, Joseph Taraba. 2010. Factors controlling the emissions of malodors and greenhouse gases from livestock operations: Monitoring to mathematical modeling of fate and transport processes. Submitted to: The United States Department of Agriculture. Total Budget: $2,369,393 Status: Not funded.
PI- Rezaul Mahmood. 2010. Emission dispersion modeling from the livestock firms. Submitted to: The United States Department of Agriculture. Total Budget: $147,306. Status: Funded.
PI- Cathleen Webb and Rezaul Mahmood. 2009. NSF-REU: Impacts of Land Use/Land Cover on Mammoth Cave/Upper Green River Watershed in Western Kentucky. Submitted to: The NSF. Total budget: $349, 806. Status: Funded.
PIs- Claire Rinehart and Rezaul Mahmood. 2009. WKU-High Performance Computing Center. Submitted to: U. S. Department of Education. Total Budget: $2,379,000. Status: Funded.
PI-Xingan Fan, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. Land Memory of Heat and Response of Regional Climate. Submitted to: NOAA. Total Budget: $477,207. Status: Not Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood, Robert Tindall, and Stuart Foster. Scoping Workshop for Identifying Decision Tools for Non-coastal Flood Response and Mitigation in the Contiguous US. Submitted to: NOAA. Total Budget: $50,000. Status: Not funded.
PI-Stuart Foster, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. Developing an environmental monitoring system for Kentucky. Submitted to: NOAA. Total budget: $700,000. Status: Funded.
PI- Rezaul Mahmood. 2009. Emission dispersion modeling from the livestock firms. Submitted to: The United States Department of Agriculture. Total Budget: $135, 229. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. Timing Shifts in Occurrence of Continental-scale Seasonal High and Low Atmospheric Moisture Content. Submitted to WKU: Total Budget: $5,000. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood, Nanh Lovanh, and John Loughrin. 2009. Factors controlling the emissions of malodors and greenhouse gases from livestock operations: Monitoring to mathematical modeling of fate and transport processes. Submitted to USDA. Total Budget: $391,182. Status: Not funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood, James Gary, and Jun Yan. 2009. MRI: Acquisition of Land-Surface Energy Flux Measurement Equipments and Building Cyberinfrastructure for Understanding the Role of Soil Moisture in Development of Planetary Boundary Layer. Submitted to: The NSF. Total budget: $1,159,000. Status: Not funded.
PI- Cathleen Webb and Rezaul Mahmood. 2008. Impacts of Land Use/Land Cover in the Upper Green River Watershed in Western Kentucky. Submitted to: The NSF. Total budget:
$428, 000. Status: Not funded.
PI-Nanh Lovanh, John Loughrin, and Rezaul Mahmood. 2008. Factors controlling the emissions of malodors and greenhouse gases from livestock operations: Monitoring to mathematical modeling of fate and transport processes. Submitted to USDA. Total Budget: $579,000. Status: Not funded.
PI-Stuart Foster, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2008. Developing an environmental monitoring system for Kentucky. Submitted to: NOAA. First Year budget: $668, 997. Status: Funded.
PI- Rezaul Mahmood. 2008. Emission dispersion modeling from the livestock firms. Submitted to: The United States Department of Agriculture. Total Budget: $112, 599. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood, James Gary, Jun Yan, and Stuart Foster. 2008. MRI: Acquisition of Land-Surface Energy Flux Measurement Equipments and Building Cyberinfrastructure for Understanding the Role of Soil Moisture in Development of Planetary Boundary Layer. Submitted to: The NSF. Total budget: $1,200,000. Status: Not funded.
PI- Phillip Womble, Tim Stombaugh, Rezaul Mahmood, John Spadaro. 2007. AgWatch: A Method of Detecting Crop Disease Breakouts Using Multispectral Sensors. Pre-proposal. Submitted to: National Institute For Hometown Security. Total Budget: $973,000. Status: Not Funded.
PI- Eugene S. Takle, WKU PI-Rezaul Mahmood, Co-PIs Jun Yan, Gregory Goodrich, Yanmei Li, Stuart Foster. 2007. Midwest Consortium for Climate Assessment (MiCCA). Submitted to: NOAA. WKU budget: $250, 000. Status: Not Funded.
PI-Stuart Foster, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2007. Developing an environmental monitoring system for Kentucky. Submitted to: NOAA. First Year budget: $400, 000. Status: Funded.
PI- Rezaul Mahmood. 2007. Emission dispersion modeling from the livestock firms. Submitted to: The United States Department of Agriculture. Total Budget: $82, 878. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood, Roger Pielke Sr., Kenneth Hubbard. 2007. Workshop on Detecting the Atmospheric Response to the Changing Face of the Earth (Boulder, Colorado, August 27-29, 2007). Submitted to: The National Science Foundation. Total Budget: $15, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-Stuart Foster, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2006. Developing an environmental monitoring system for Kentucky. Submitted to: NOAA. First Year budget: $1, 500, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. Changes in timing of first and last days of frost and annual frost frequency due to land use change. WKU Faculty Research Council. Total Budget: $5, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood, Co-PI Jun Yan, Lakshmi Narasimhan, Christi McMichael, John Tibe, and Stuart Foster. 2007. Pre-proposal: The Center for Integrated Land Atmosphere Studies (CILAS). Submitted to: The National Science Foundation. Total Budget: $4, 200, 000. Status: Not funded
PI-Lakshmi Narasimhan, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood, James Gary, Jun Yan, and Christi McMichael. Collaborative Research: EDAM: An anchor desk for Environmental Disaster Analysis & Management -Design of foundational infrastructure based on high performance & grid computing. Submitted to: The National Science Foundation. Total Budget: $368, 199. Status: Not funded.
PI- Rezaul Mahmood. 2006. Emission dispersion modeling from the livestock firms. Submitted to: The United States Department of Agriculture. Total Budget: $40, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2006. Flash flood climatology of the Appalachian region. Submitted to: The National Climatic Data Center/NOAA. Total Budget: $1, 900. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2005. Collaborative research: Spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and land memory processes in the Great Plains. Submitted to: The National Science Foundation. Total Budget: $225, 704. Status: Not funded.
PI- Rezaul Mahmood. 2005. The First Assessment of Observed Data-based Soil Moisture Variations in the Northern Great Plains. Total Budget: $5, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood 2005. Measurement and modeling of near surface micro- and meso-scale processes. Submitted to: The United States Department of Agriculture. Total Budget:
$45, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-Michael Trapasso, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2005. Establishment of research grade climate/meteorology laboratory facility. Proposal submitted to KY NSF-EPSCoR.
Total Budget: $75, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-David Legates, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood and Collaboratores. 2005. Estimating bias in precipitation measurement. Submitted to The National Science Foundation. Total Budget: $290, 000. Status: Not funded.
PI- Michael Trapasso, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2005. Enhancement of computation facilities for the Climate/Meteorology program. Total Budget: $10, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-Cathleen Webb, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2004. Summer Research Experience for Undergraduates in the Mammoth Cave/ Upper Green River Watershed. Proposal submitted to: The National Science Foundation (NSF). Total Budget: $254, 000. Status: Funded
PI-Kenneth G. Hubbard, Rezaul Mahmood, and David R. Legates. 2004. Spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and land memory processes in the Great Plains. Submitted to: The National Science Foundation. Total Budget: $347, 000. Status: Not Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood, Daniel Leathers, and David R. Legates. 2004. An alternative hypothesis of El Nino related monsoonal rainfall variability in Bangladesh and Eastern India. Submitted to: The National Science Foundation. Total Budget: $282,000. Status: Not Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2004. Assessing Precipitation Variability in the Mid-latitudes Using A High Density Precipitation Measuring Network in the Mammoth Cave National Park. Budget:
$1, 000. Status: Funded. (second phase)
PI- Michael Trapasso, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2004. Enhancement of computation facilities for the Climate/Meteorology program. Amount requested: $25, 000. Status: Not Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood and Co-PI Stuart Foster. 2004. Development of south central Kentucky mesonet. Total Budget: $24, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2004. Impacts of Land Use Change on Near Surface Dew Point Temperature Records in the Great Plains. Submitted to the National Climatic Data Center. Total Budget: $2,500. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood, Daniel Leathers, and David R. Legates. 2003. An alternative hypothesis of El Nino related monsoonal rainfall variability in Bangladesh and Eastern India. Submitted to: The National Science Foundation. Total Budget: $318,000. Status: Not Funded.
PI-Kenneth G. Hubbard, Rezaul Mahmood, and David R. Legates. 2003. Spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and land memory processes in the Great Plains. Submitted to: The National Science Foundation. Total Budget: $264, 000. Status: Not Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2003. Flash flooding in the Eastern Kentucky: A hydrometeorological case study. Submitted to: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Total Budget: $10, 000. Status: Funded.
PI- Michael Trapasso, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2003. Real-time meteorological data feed to Climate/Meteorology lab. Total Budget: $24, 000. Status: Funded
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2003. Relationship between near-surface and root zone soil moisture: Implication for remote sensing. WKU faculty research council. Total Budget: $5, 000. Status: Funded
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2003. Assessing Precipitation Variability in the Mid-latitudes Using A High Density Precipitation Measuring Network in the Mammoth Cave National Park. Total Budget: $1, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-Stuart Foster, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2003. Joint initiative on local and regional hydroclimatic research. Funding source: Applied Research and Technology Program (ARTP), Western Kentucky University. Total Budget: $25, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-Stuart Foster, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2003. Developing an environmental monitoring system for Kentucky. Proposed budget: $3,248,500. Status: Pending
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2003. Precipitation measurement at the Mammoth cave National Park. Funding Source: Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education. Total Budget: 13, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-Michael Trapasso, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2002. Meteorological lab upgrade. Funding organization: Western Kentucky University. Total Budget: $24, 762. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2002. Determining Sensitivity of a Physically-based Soil Water Model to Estimated Solar Radiation and Relative Humidity. Proposal Submitted to Western Kentucky University Faculty Research Council. Total Budget: $5, 000. Status: Funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2003. An assessment of El Nino related monsoonal rainfall variability in Bangladesh and eastern India. KY NSF-EPSCoR. Proposed total budget: $49, 000. Status: Not funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2002. An alternative hypothesis of El Nino related monsoonal rainfall variability in Bangladesh and eastern India. Proposal submitted to: The National Science Foundation, CAREER Program. Amount requested: $491, 921. Status: Not funded.
PI-Kenneth G. Hubbard, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood and Alan Basist. 2002. Soil moisture climatology and land memory processes in the Northern Mississippi and Missouri Basins. Proposal submitted to: The Office of Global Programs, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Amount Requested: $189, 223. Status: Not funded.
PI-Cathleen Webb, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2002. Summer Research Experience for Undergraduates in the Mammoth Cave/ Upper Green River Watershed. Proposal submitted to: The National Science Foundation (NSF). Amount requested: $314, 061. Status: Not funded.
PI-Michael Trapasso, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2002. Meteorological lab upgrade. Funding organization: Western Kentucky University. Proposed budget: $33, 632. Status: Not funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood, Co-PI Chris Groves. 2002. Mammoth cave meteorological flux measuring instrumentation. Funding Organization: National Park Service. Proposed budget: $200, 000. Status: Not funded.
PI-Kenneth G. Hubbard, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood and Alan Basist. 2001. Soil moisture climatology and land memory processes in the Northern Mississippi and Missouri Basins. Proposal submitted to: The Office of Global Programs, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Amount Requested: $267, 277. Status: Not funded.
PI-Cathleen Webb, Co-PI Rezaul Mahmood. 2001. Summer Research Experience for Undergraduates in the Mammoth Cave/ Upper Green River Watershed. Proposal submitted to : The National Science Foundation (NSF). Amount requested: $284,880. Status: Not funded.
PI-Nevil Speer 2001. A case study of anthropogenic inputs in a karst/non-karst watershed: stakeholder participitation in watershed management. Proposal submitted to: The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Amount Requested: $590,296. Status: Not funded
PI-Rezaul Mahmood, Co-PI Burl I. Naugle, Co-PI Christopher Groves, Co-PI Sturat Foster. 2001. Flooding in karst watersheds: a hydrometeorlogical and hydro-geomorphic analysis. Proposal submitted to: KYEPSCoR. Amount requested: $20,000. Status: Not funded.
PI-Rezaul Mahmood. 2001. El Nino related monsoonal rainfall variability in Bangladesh and eastern India: an analysis of synoptic-scale atmospheric forcing. Proposal Submitted to Western Kentucky University Faculty Research Council. Total Budget: $3,930. Status: Funded.

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